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Within the Discussion Board area, write 400–600 words that respond to the following questions with your thoughts, ideas, and comments. This will be the foundation for future discussions by your classmates. Be substantive and clear, and use examples to reinforce your ideas.


Discuss 10 terms that contribute to complications of the cardiovascular or respiratory system. Discuss why these factors cause such complications and what kinds of procedures are currently being used to correct such problems. For reference you can use your chapter readings or research articles related to the subject on the internet and through the library.

Responses to Other Students: Respond to at least 2 of your fellow classmates with at least a 100-word reply about their Primary Task Response regarding items you found to be compelling and enlightening. To help you with your discussion, please consider the following questions:

  • What did you learn from your classmate’s posting?
  • What additional questions do you have after reading the posting?
  • What clarification do you need regarding the posting?
  • What differences or similarities do you see between your posting and other classmates’ postings?  

Students are graded on the quality and originality of their posts and responses, not the quantity.


Carol Smith


October 14, 2013

Professor Jeffrey Henry


1 Bronchiectasis is a loss of elasticity and dilation of the bronchioles. It is cause by chronic inflammation, and is treated with oxygen and chest physiotherapy or chest PT. Chest PT is done by placing the patient in a prone position with his feet higher than his head and patting his the area over his lungs lightly with a cupped hand (Turley, 2014, p. 166).

2 Pulmonary Edema is caused by fluid collecting in the alveoli sacs. This is caused by left sided heart failure. Patients are treated with oxygen and the cause of the heart failure is treated (Turley, 2014, p. 172).

3 Pulmonary Embolus is an embolus, (blood clot) that has lodged in the pulmonary circulation. Pulmonary embolism can be life threatening if they are large. They are treated with oxygen and anticoagulants (Turley, 2014, p. 173)

4 A hemothorax is a collection of blood in the chest cavity usually caused by trauma. A chest tube is inserted to evacuate the blood and re-inflate the lung (Turley, 2014, p. 173).

5 A pneumothorax is similar to a hemothorax, only there is no blood in the chest cavity only free air. A chest tube is also placed to evacuate the air and let the puncture wound heal (Turley, 2014, p. 174)

6 Asphyxia is when someone has a low level of oxygen and a high level of carbon dioxide in their blood. Asphyxia is usually caused by choking or something that causes airway obstruction and prevents ventilation. It is treated with cardiopulmonary resuscitation and the removal of the blockage (Turley, 2014, p. 175) .

7 Hypoxemia is having a low level of oxygen in your blood. The difference between hypoxemia and asphyxia is that the CO2 level is not raise in hypoxemia. The patient is able to ventilate, but is not absorbing the oxygen. Treatment of hypoxemia is aimed at fixing the underlying cause of the hypoxemia (Turley, 2014, p. 176)

8 Ischemia is a lack of oxygen that is caused from a lack of blood flow (Turley, 2014, p. 225). Ischemia can be caused from a blood clot or from a restriction of blood flow from plaque in the arteries. When blood flow is restricted in the coronary arteries, mild ischemia can cause angina pectoris.

9 Angina Pectoris is a severe crushing chest pain that may radiate to the neck or down the left arm. It may resolve with rest. It is a sign of ischemia which may mean a heart attack is imminent (Turley, 2014, p. 225).

10 Regurgitation occurs in the heart when the valves are damaged. The valves prevent the backflow of blood during contraction. If the valve is not working properly, then blood flows backward with each contraction causing congestion and poor perfusion. Severe regurgitation is treated by surgically repairing or replacing the valves (Turley, 2014, p. 227)